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formel og uformel læringsstimulering

Den læringsteoretiske forskning har gennemgået en parallel udvikling med kommunikationsforskningen; læring i dag mere som et resultat af læringsstimulering og deltagelse (modsat videnstransfer og transmittativ kommunikation), og læring kan stimuleres andre steder end i klasselokalerne; på arbejdet, i hjemmet, hvor der er adgang til netværkstjenester, digitale spil, edutainment29 m.v., og i samfundets vidensbaserede og kulturelle institutioner, og derfor er det nødvendigt at overskride grænserne mellem formel og uformel læringsstimulering (Qvortrup, 2002, p.18, Sfard, A., 1998). Når børn og unge i deres egne netværk selvstændigt har taget den nye teknologi og de nye medier i brug, er det sket gennem uformelle læringsprocesser, der har været drevet af motivation og interesse (Jessen, C., 2000, p.150). Derfor er informationsteknologierne vigtige som læringsmidler, idet de repræsenterer helt nye måder at bearbejde og tilegne sig viden på, som er i overensstemmelse med de kompetencer, som det informationsteknologiske samfund stiller (Op.cit. p.151). Kompetencer som at eksperimentere, udvikle og udveksle viden forstærkes nærmest automatisk, når computeren tages i anvendelse, og i forlængelse heraf øges mulighederne for, som Tapscott understreger, at kunne organisere og kontrollere ens egne læreprocesser (Op.cit. p.153).

Prensky fremhæver i bogen Digital Game-Based Learning en række fordele ved at bruge digitale spil som læringsmiddel. Der skulle især være tre fordele forbundet med kombinationen af læring og spil: svært tilgængelige eller kedelige emner kan læres gennem motivati- 28 Kompetencerådet, som Lars Kolind er formand for, er et privat organ, der blev oprettet i 1998, hvis medlemmer stammer fra offentlige og private virksomheder og organisationer. Rådet har siden 2002 fungeret under Undervisningsministeriet og har til formål at ”inspirere, eksperimentere og provokere” til nytænkning omkring det 21. århundredes udfordringer  29 Ordet edutainment er sammensat af education og entertainment. Genren repræsenterer således en hybrid mellem underholdning og læring Den digitale generation på museum 62 on, forskellige læringsstile og behov kan imødekommes, og spillene kan skræddersyes i forhold til ethvert emne og enhver kompetence (Prensky, M., 2007 p.3). Bogen bygger grundlæggende på princippet om, at læring gennem spil er effektivt, hvis spillene er brugerdrevne og underholdende – læring skal nemlig ifølge Prensky være sjovt. Andre forskere har ligeledes fremhævet læringspotentialet ved kombinationen af leg og læring, fordi deltagerne er meget aktive i læreprocessen og som en fælles aktivitet kan eksempelvis spil facilitere fælles meningskonstruktion (Olesen, B. & Sørensen, B.H., 2000, p.47). For museerne betyder det, at brugerne fra den digitale generation i deres fritid er vant til at lære, simpelthen fordi de har lyst; webbet er en platform, hvor man kan lære ved at forsøge sig frem, og hvor brugerne er vant til at kunne hente hjælp fra andre med samme interesse. Hvis museerne skal udvikle oplevelser til denne generation, er det derfor afgørende, at de baserer deres didaktiske tilgang på læringsmidler og læringsformer, som i højere grad sætter brugerne i centrum og hvor brugerne kan være aktive medspillere, som har frihed til at præge og vælge i de specifikke oplevelser. Med anvendelsen af informationsteknologier som læringsmiddel og kommunikationskanal følger dog en didaktisk balancegang ved på den ene side at lade brugerne være medproducenter og på den anden side at styre brugerne mod det indholdsmæssige formål med de valgte kommunikations- og læringsmidler.

En netop udkommen rapport fra Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitetsskole peger på udfordringen i at overdrage nye teknologier til studerende og på samme tid holde deres fokus rettet mod læringen – generationen er som tidligere nævnt jo også kendetegnet ved at multitaske og er vant til at zappe fra det ene til det andet – over halvdelen af de studerende pegede selv på, at det var umuligt ikke at tjekke mails, Facebook, sms’er osv., samtidig med, at de skulle bruge teknologierne som læringsmiddel – eller som en lærer fremhæver i rapporten ”De er på hele tiden, de slapper aldrig af i hovedet” (Vestergaard, A.L., Brown, R. & Simonsen, B., 2010, p.77). Museerne er uformelle læringsmiljøer, hvor brugerne deltager, fordi de har lyst og derfor vil motivationen i højere grad kunne bevare et fokus på læringsmidlet jf. kombinationen af ”leg og lær”. Som det fremhæves i rapportens resultater, forsvinder teknologierne ikke fra undervisningen, og hvis ikke en hel generation skal tabes, er man nødt til at finde en løsning. Man kunne argumentere for, at sms’er og Facebook ikke medfører mere ”støj” i læringen end der tidligere har været gennem eksempelvis skjulte sedler eller blikke mellem de studerende. Generationen vil sikkert opfange de væsentligste pointer fra den TV-serie de ser samtidig med, at de chatter og tjekker mails og læser blogs. Men løsningen for museerne kan være, at udstikke klare retningslinjer for læringsaktiviteterne eller selv deltage i rollen som facilitator eller ekspertdeltager – som Falk påpeger, er det vigtigt, at museumsbrugerne ved, hvad der forventes af dem og i spil eller andre ”leg og lær” aktiviteter er de netop også vant til at følge regler for aktiviteterne. Jeg vil konkretisere disse museumsdidaktiske overvejelser i mine løsningsforslag, men først er det nødvendigt med et kort oprids af specialets pointer, som vil danne afsæt for mine forslag. Den digitale generation på museum

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